Devastating Conflict: Battle destroyed Manila's architectural and cultural heritage.

City's Toll: Over 100,000 Filipino citizens lost their lives.

Swift Overrun: U.S. forces quickly advanced from Manila to Luzon.

Brutal Tactics: Japanese forces used human shields and committed war crimes.

MacArthur's Victory: Declaration on Feb 6 despite ongoing urban warfare.

Historical Loss: Combat and artillery damaged 17th-century structures.

March's End: Organized Japanese resistance ceased in March.